In relation to my area of specialization as an ICT Teacher, I have discovered that after Teaching the Topic of Spreadsheets, learners fail to apply the knowledge of Formulas and functions in Logical concepts/ Tasks. For example, these Learners know how to use the SUM, PRODUCT, MIN, MAX, RANK Functions to compute figures in Spreadsheets Tasks, but when the Task Requires to some Logic, the Learners fail interpret the Logic behind the Task to apply the Formula and Functions Knowledge to accomplish the task.
Causes of this Cognitive Disability
- Limited practice of Logic tasks in Spreadsheet Application.
- Negative attitude towards mathematical / Logical calculations.
- Learners don’t want to think deeply, they are most interested in the Tasks that are straight forward.
At the end of this Instructional Material, learners should be able to;
- Apply the knowledge of Logical Functions and Interpret the Logic in the spreadsheet Tasks given.
- Use the Knowledge of Formulas and Functions to attempt the spreadsheet tasks with ease.
- AUTHENTIC LEARNING TASK
TASK: You have been instructed to process results of inter-house football league to be presented on your school’s sports day. Use a spreadsheet software to enter the raw data as below; (4 Marks)
Mbaga House P(38) W(28) D(8) L(2) GS(94) GA(26)
Cyprian House P(38) W(22) D(3) L(13) GS(61) GA(48)
Kizito House P(38) W(16) D(10) L(12) GS(57) GA(57)
Augustine House P(38) W(16) D(8) L(14) GS(60) GA(51)
Jude House P(38) W(21) D(11) L(6) GS(76) GA(33)
Livingstone House P(38) W(14) D(10) L(14) GS(62) GA(59)
Cohen House P(38) W(22) D(5) L(11) GS(69) GA(40)
New York House P(38) W(29) D(6) L(3) GS(99) GA(26)
- P means number of games played, W is the number of wins, D is the number of losses, GS are goals scored and GA are goals scored against.
- a) Copy your work to sheet2. (2 Marks)
- b) Add a suitable tittle to your work. (2 Marks)
- c) Add a new column and compute the goal difference for every house. (2 Marks)
HINT: Get the difference of Goal scored and Goal against.
- d) Using a suitable formula, determine the total points for every house given that every win earns 3 points, a draw 1 point and a loss 0 points. (2 Marks)
Hint: Multiply every win by 3.
- e) Add a column before the first and use an appropriate function to determine the position of every team using the number of points. (2 Marks)
Hint: Use the RANK function and Absolute cell referencing
- f) Represent the number of wins for every house on a column chart. (2 Marks)
HINT: Select the House Column and the Wins Column and then Insert the Column Chart.
- g) Given that the first four teams go to champions league, apply color highlight to such
teams. (2 Marks)
HINT: First sort the data in Position Column in Ascending Order
- THEORETICAL UNDERPINNING
Cognitivism will be my theory of Learning that will inform the design on Instruction to address the above cognitive disability. This theory is about thinking beyond the box while learning. According to Bransford & Johnson, 1972; Dooling & Lachman, Hattan et al., 2015, It has been proved useful to provide explicit opportunities for students to activate their prior knowledge so they can build on it. Some students can spontaneously activate their prior knowledge while Learning, while others need support and guidance (Carr & Thompson,1996).
Therefore, in this Instruction Design, learners are going to acquire knowledge of Spreadsheet formulas and functions and then be prompted to apply that knowledge in the tasks given. The teacher will continue to give support and guidance.
In addition. Cognitive learning discourages cramming of information, but rather ensures deep understanding of a subject. It improves your ability to relate new knowledge with previous experiences or information. It helps learners to apply new information or skills in life situations and encourage them to develop problem solving skills.
- TECHNOLOGY AFFORDANCE ANALYSIS.
I will use WordPress as a technological tool that allows do the following;
- Text input, Audio, Videos, images, and document file upload.
- Sharing of Links.
- Real time collaboration ie a student can send a message or audio asking for clarification or guidance from the teacher or peers.
- Attempting self-graded online quiz.
- Provision of feedback after accomplishing a given task. Ie You have successfully attempted Part B, continue with Part C.
(Padlet APP, WordPress)
- METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION
Using the Addie Model of Instruction, I made analysis and identified the instruction problem, set Instructional goals and objectives considering the Online Learning environment.
Instructional goals and objectives include;
- To equip learners with the knowledge of Formulas and Functions in spreadsheets.
- To prompt learners to attempt many tasks that require application of Formulas and Functions.
Learning objectives, exercises/tasks, content lesson planning and media selection have been established and incorporated in the Design.
Authorizing software tools like presentation software, Bandicam for screen recording, google forms, You tube have been used with WordPress have been used to create a multimedia e-learning modules according to the design document. For example, document files, videos, links and quizzes.
- DISCUSSION AND ABSTRACTLY CONCEPTUALISATION
The Technology and pedagogical choices used were useful in the way that they the Learners are now interested in using technology to learn. However, in the process of learning they need guidance which is given by the teacher in this instructional material.
By using this technology and demonstration method, the learner can always playback to capture a concept that was not clear to him or her.
It also gives chances to learners to make inquiries with ease ie sending a message instead of approaching the teacher physically.
Learning is not restricted in only the class, whenever they can access a computer or smartphone, they can practice the spreadsheet numbers thus becoming confident in applying the knowledge of formulas and functions.
Given the number of tasks given, the learner can ably apply the formulas and functions in attempting the Logic Tasks
Winn, W. (1990), Some implications of cognitive theory for instructional design. Instr Sci 19, 53–69.
Ruiz-Martín, H., Bybee, R.W. (2022). The cognitive principles of learning underlying the 5E Model of Instruction. IJ STEM Ed 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-022-00337-z
Patel, S. R., Margolies, P. J., Covell, N. H., Lipscomb, C., & Dixon, L. B. (2018). Using Instructional Design, Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate, to Develop e-Learning Modules to Disseminate Supported Employment for Community Behavioral Health Treatment Programs in New York State.